Machine Learning with R Programming Language 2021 with Tutorials

machine-learning-with-r-language
machine-learning-with-r-language

Firstly, R is a powerful programming language with a unique programming environment available for free statistical computing and graphics usage. This ability makes it one of the most used languages not only for statistical computing but also for data analysis. This article on Machine Learning with R will give you all you ever wanted to know about the use of the R programming language in machine learning.

Actually, R development took place in the early 1990s and since then its user interface has undergone many improvements.

At first, it was a rudimentary text editor and R Studio became interactive shortly thereafter. His last expedition with Jupyter Notebooks is an important step in his nearly three decades of the journey.

However, the improvements that have been made to R over the years have been due to the contributions made by the R user community that spans the length and breadth of this world.

Several powerful packages have been continuously added to this language making it a popular language among the data science and machine learning communities around the world.

Though, some of the packages include rpart, readr, MICE, caret, and others. We will discuss how a few of these packages play an important role in the implementation of machine learning in R.

Table Of Contents

Quick Overview of Machine Learning

As you may already know, machine learning algorithms fall into two types:

  • Supervised Machine Learning (SML) algorithms 
  • Unsupervised Machine Learning (UML) algorithms

Supervised machine learning algorithms are those that are rendered with categorized inputs, indicating the desired outputs.

SML algorithms are further divided into regression algorithms that have numerical output and classification algorithms that have categorical outputs.

On the other hand, unsupervised learning algorithms are those that don’t have labelled inputs. The focus here is to detect the data structure in unlabelled input. 

You will also encounter semi-supervised learning algorithms and augmentative learning algorithms. In addition, occur as you deepen your study of machine learning and the problems they can be used to solve.

Also read: R Programming A-Z™: R For Data Science Free Download

Is R programming right for machine learning? (Machine learning on r)

Many people have this perception that R is only good for statistical computing. However, they soon realized their mistake.

Obviously, there are several provisions in R that can make implementing machine learning algorithms simpler and faster.

Certainly, R is among the preferred languages for data science projects. It comes with display features that you can link to other languages.

These features help in exploring the data in the right way before sending it to the machine learning algorithm for further application. While at the same time evaluating the results of the learning algorithm.

Packages to implement machine learning algorithms in R or machine learning on R

For you to implement machine learning in R, these packages below have to play a huge part.

#1. Multivariate imputation by chained equations (MICE)

Multivariate imputation by chained equations or MICE package is mostly used to implement a method that is capable enough to handle missing data.

It creates multiple replacement values related to the missing data. In this method, there is a separate form that is assigned to each variable that is incomplete or missing.

Now you can easily relate it to Fully Conditional Specifications. MICE can be used to designate a combination of binary, continuous, desired categorical and unordered data.

You can constantly reference two-level data and use negative cross-referencing to maintain the desired consistency. The attribution quality is checked by implementing various diagnostic charts.

#2. rpart package

rpart package is used to perform recursive portioning in decision trees, classification, and regression algorithms. This procedure is carried out in two simple steps.

The result of this action is a binary tree. The planning of results, which is achieved with the help of rpart, is done by calling the drawing function. rpart can be used to perform classification and regression.

Also, it helps to understand the variance that the independent variables use to influence the dependent variables.

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#3. Random forest package

The random forest package or approach sees the creation of several decision trees. Each one of these trees is fed with observations. The final output is determined by the outcome that most commonly appears with different observations. 

#4. The caret package

The caret package is a short for classification and regression training. It is used to make predictive modeling much simpler than it usually is.

You can use the caret to perform controlled experiments to determine optimal parameters.

Some of the tools you can access when using this package include model fitting, data preprocessing, feature selection, and data segmentation, among others.

#5. e1071 package

You can use the e1071 package to implement Support Vector Machines (SVM), Naïve Bayes, Bagged Clustering, and Fourier Transform amongst other machine learning algorithms.

SVM is one of e1071’s best features.

It allows users to work with data that cannot be separated into the dimension available to them. Dimensions are required by users to perform the slope or arrangement at dimensions higher than those given.

#6. The nnet package

The nnet package is an add-on of the R language that prepares the groundwork for creating neural network classifiers.

You can create just a single layer of nodes with this package. It simplifies all the steps that are a part of the neural network creation process. Including data preparation, evaluation of the model’s accuracy, and making predictions. 

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Machine learning with R pdf

There has been a lot of machine learning in R pdf online. But here, I will be giving you some excerpts of the machine learning in r pdf from MIT by Allison Chang. This pdf file is so rich that it will teach what you should know in machine learning using r.

In addition, it will walk you down the machine learning mastery with r or mastering machine learning with r.

Introduction to machine learning with r pdf

It is common for today’s scientific and business industries to collect large amounts of data, and the ability to analyze the data and learn from it is critical to making informed decisions.

Familiarity with software such as R allows users to visualize data, run statistical tests, and apply machine learning algorithms. Even if you already know other software, there are still good reasons to learn R:

R is free

If your future employer does not already have R installed, you can always download it for free.
Unlike other proprietary software packages that require expensive licenses.

No matter where you travel, you can have access to R on your computer.

R gives you access to cutting-edge technology.

Top researchers develop statistical learning methods
in R, and new algorithms are constantly added to the list of packages you can download.

R is a useful skill.

Meanwhile, employers that value analytics recognize R as useful and important. If for no other the reason, learning R is worthwhile to help boost your resume.

But note that R is a programming language, and there is no intuitive graphical user interface with buttons you can click to run different methods.

However, with some practice, this kind of environment makes it easy to quickly code scripts and functions for various statistical purposes. To get the most out of this tutorial, follow the examples by typing them out in R on your own computer.

A line that begins with > is input at the command prompt. We do not include the output in most cases, but you should try out the commands yourself and see what happens.

If you type something at the command line and decide not to execute, press the down arrow to clear the line; pressing the up arrow gives you the previously executed command.

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Getting Started

The R Project website is http://www.r-project.org/. In the menu on the left, click on CRAN under “Download, Packages.” Choose a location close to you.

At MIT, you can go with the University of Toronto under Canada. This leads you to instructions on how to download R for Linux, Mac, or Windows.

Once you open R, to figure out your current directory, type getwd(). To change directory, use setwd (note that the “C:” notation is for Windows and would be different on a Mac):

setwd("C:\\Datasets")

Installing and loading packages

Functions in R are grouped into packages, a number of which are automatically loaded when you start R. These include “base,” “utils,” “graphics,” and “stats.” Many of the most essential and frequently used functions come in these packages.

However, you may need to download additional packages to obtain other useful functions. For example, an important classification method called Support Vector Machines is contained in a package called “e1071.”

To install this package, click “Packages” in the top menu, then “Install package(s)…” When asked to select a CRAN mirror, choose a location close to you, such as “Canada (ON).”

Finally, select “e1071.” To load the package, type library(e1071) at the command prompt. Note that you need to install a package only once, but that if you want to use it, you need to load it each time you start R.

Running code

However, you could use R by simply typing everything at the command prompt, but this does not easily allow you to save, repeat, or share your code.

Instead, go to “File” in the top menu and click on “New script.” This opens up a new window that you can save as a .R file. To execute the code you type into this window, highlight the lines you wish to run, and press Ctrl-R on a PC or Command Enter on a Mac.

If you want to run an entire script, make sure the script window is on top of all others, go to “Edit,” and click “Run all.” Any lines that are run appear in red at the command prompt.

Help in R

The functions in R are generally well-documented. To find documentation for a particular function, type ? followed directly by the function name at the command prompt.

For example, if you need help on the “sum” function, type ?sum. The help window that pops up typically contains details on both the input and output for the function of interest.

If you are getting errors or unexpected output, it is likely that your input is insufficient or invalid, so use the documentation to figure out the proper way to call the function.

If you want to run a certain algorithm but do not know the name of the function in R, doing a Google search of R plus the algorithm name usually brings up information on which function to use.

Datasets

Most importantly, when you test any machine learning algorithm, you should use a variety of datasets. R conveniently comes with its own datasets, and you can view a list of their names by typing data() at the command prompt.

For instance, you may see a dataset called “cars.” Load the data by typing data(cars), and view the data by typing cars. Another useful source of available data is the UCI Machine Learning Repository, which contains a couple hundred datasets. Mostly from a variety of real applications in science and business.

The repository is located at http://archive.ics.uci.edu/ml/datasets.html. These data are often used by machine learning researchers to develop and compare algorithms.

We have downloaded a number of datasets for your use, and you can find the text files in the Datasets section. These include

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Machine learning with R Brett Lantz pdf

In this Brett Lantz pdf machine learning with R, I will be giving you a brief content structure of the pdf file to help you with the information it has to offer.

However, his book has different versions which I will list later.

About the author

Brett Lantz has used innovative data methods for the past 10 years to understand human behaviour. A trained sociologist, he was initially delighted with machine learning while studying a large database of teen social media website profiles.

Since then, he has worked on interdisciplinary studies on cell phone calls, medical billing data, and philanthropic activities, among other things.

When he’s not spending time with his family, playing college sports, or hanging out with his dachshunds, he runs dataspelunking.com, a website that shares knowledge on how to find valuable information about data.

Chapter 1: Introducing Machine Learning

  • The origins of machine learning
  • Uses and abuses of machine learning
  • How do machines learn?
  • Steps to apply machine learning
  • Choosing a machine learning algorithm
  • Using R for machine learning

Chapter 2: Managing and Understanding Data

  • R data structures
  • Vectors
  • Factors
  • Managing data with R
  • Exploring and understnding data

Chapter 3: Lazy Learning – Classification Using Nearest Neighbors

  • Understanding classification using nearest neighbors
  • Diagnozing breast cancer with the kNN algorithm

Chapter 4: Probabilistic Learning – Classification Using Naive Bayes

  • Understanding a naive bayes
  • Example – Filtering mobile phone spam with the naive bayes algorithm

Chapter 5: Divide and Conquer – Classification Using Decision Trees and Rules

  • Understanding decision trees
  • Example – Identifying risky bank loans using C5.0 decision trees
  • Understanding classification rules
  • Example – identifying poisonous mushrooms with rule learners

Chapter 6: Forecasting Numeric Data – Regression Methods

  • Understanding regression
  • Example – predicting medical expenses using linear regression
  • Understanding regression trees and model trees
  • Example – estimating the quality of wines with regression trees and model trees

Chapter 7: Black Box Methods – Neural Networks and Support Vector Machines

  • Understanding neural networks
  • Modelling the strength of concrete with ANNs
  • Understanding support vectors
  • Perform OCR and SVMs

Chapter 8: Finding Patterns – Market Basket Analysis Using Association Rules

  • Understanding association rules
  • Example – identifying frequently purchased grocries with association rules

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Chapter 9: Finding Groups of Data – Clustering with k-means 267 Understanding clustering

  • Understanding clustering

Chapter 10: Evaluating Model Performance

  • Measuring performance for classification
  • Estimating future performance

Chapter 11: Improving Model Performance

  • Turning stock models for better performance
  • Improving model performance with meta-leading

Chapter 12: Specialized Machine Learning Topics

  • Working with specialized data
  • Improving the performing of R

Best machine learning with R books

R is a powerful data analysis and machine learning platform.

It’s the main workhorse for things like competitions and consulting jobs. The reason is the large number of powerful algorithms that are all available on one platform.

Here, I want to point out a few book resources to get you started in machine learning in R.

8 best list of machine learning with r books

First on my list is…..

#1. R in a Nutshell

This  R in a Nutshell has great quality content that walks you through the platform from installation, basic operations, data analysis and even some machine learning algorithms. I highly recommend it.

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#2. Applied Predictive Modeling

Max Kuhn, an author to this book is the creator of the famous caret packageApplied Predictive Modeling is very practical and opens in the first part with a description of predictive analytics process and case studies.

Interestingly, part 2 and 3 look at regression and classification algorithms and the final Part covers more advanced topics like feature selection.

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#3. An Introduction to Statistical Learning: with Applications in R

This is the more accessible version of the classic “The Elements of Statistical Learning: Data Mining, Inference, and Prediction” and includes two of the same authors.

An introduction to Statistical Learning begins with an introduction to statistical learning and topics such as model accuracy and bias variance compensation.

Most noteworthy, chapters 3 and 4 explain linear regression and some simpler classification algorithms.

The following chapters explain cross-validation, model selection before moving to nonlinear regression, decision trees, SVM, and exiting with unattended methods.

However, the book is also available online for free from the authors webpage.

#4. Practical Data Science with R

Practical Data Science with R has more of a data science spin than machine learning. The first Part is introductory looking at loading data into R.

Part 2 starts off with model evaluation and works through models in increasing complexity through k-NN, Naive Bayes, Linear Regression, clustering, association rules and SVM.

Lastly, part 3 works through advanced issues like self-documenting scripts and presenting results.

#5. Machine Learning with R

Machine Learning

Machine Learning with R provides an overview of machine learning in R without going into details or theory.

Case studies are also often used to demonstrate each algorithm. It starts with a brief introduction to machine learning and R and data management in R.

The following chapters cover k-NN, naive Bayes, decision trees, regression, neural networks, a priori and clustering.

Finally, it concludes the chapters on model evaluation, algorithm optimization, and other advanced topics. A nice feature of this text is the step-by-step flow in each chapter, which provides a workable framework for the case studies.

#6. Data Mining with R: Learning with Case Studies

After a brief introduction to R in the first chapter, Data Mining with R presents case study by case study.

These include: forecasting algal blooms, stock market returns, fraudulent transactions, and sorting microarray samples.

Different methods for data preparation, model construction and model evaluation are examined in each study.

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#7. Data Mining and Business Analytics with R

Machine Learning with R

Data Mining and Business Analytics with R provide practical examples that use R.

However, the examples are more business-oriented than scientific, as in some other books. The chapters explain the main machine learning methods that R uses in smaller case studies.

Finally, the book ends with some more in-depth case studies on sentiment analysis in modeling text and network data.

#8. Data Mining with Rattle and R: The Art of Excavating Data for Knowledge Discovery (Use R!)

Machine Learning with R

Data mining with Rattle and R introduces machine learning algorithms, although the Rattle graphical environment is used.

After the introductory material on data loading and processing in Part 1, standard machine learning algorithms are covered in Part 2.

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Complete Machine learning with R tutorial

Maybe, you would want to get a hands-on tutorial or course to help you learn machine learning with R programming language. So, below is a course from Udemy which will help you with all you need on machine learning and R.

Data Science and Machine Learning Bootcamp with R

A data Scientist job was ranked #1 on Glassdoor, and the average salary for a data scientist in the US tops $120,000, according to Indeed. Data science is a rewarding career that can help you solve some of the most interesting problems in the world.

Interestingly, this course is designed for both complete beginners with no programming experience. In addition, experienced developers looking to make the jump to data science and machine learning with R.

Certainly, this course will teach you how to program with R, how to create amazing data visualizations, and how to use Machine Learning with R. I recommend the course!

These are the things you will learn after the machine learning with R tutorial

  • Program in R
  • Use R for Data Analysis
  • Create Data Visualizations
  • You will be able to use R to handle CSV, excel, SQL files or web scraping
  • Use R for Machine Learning Algorithms
  • Knowledge of using R for Data Science

Course rating: 4.6 out of 5

Final thoughts on machine learning with R

In this blog, we discussed the relationship between R and machine learning and how this programming language can be used to implement several machine learning algorithms.

Also, we reviewed some books on machine learning with R just for you. Learning R will help you a long way in you data analysis career.

Data science has evolved over the years, so I believe this blog post on machine learning with r has taught you some useful things en-route.

Lastly, you can share your thoughts with us on what you know on machine learning with R, using the comment section. Also, share with friends if it helped.

Cheers!

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Can R be used for machine learning?

You Can Use R For Machine Learning

If you know how to program with another programming language like Java, C#, JavaScript or Python then you can use R. You will pick-up the syntax very quickly. You do not need to be a good programmer.

How do I learn meachine learning in R?

1. Download and install R and get the most useful package for machine learning in R.
2. Load a dataset and understand it’s structure using statistical summaries and data visualization.
3. Create 5 machine learning models, pick the best and build confidence that the accuracy is reliable

Between R and Python, which is better for machine learning?

I would say paython. That is if you have programming experience, Python might be the language for you. Python’s syntax is easier and more similar to other languages than R’s syntax … However, if your goal is to get past the basics of machine learning and data analysis, Python is probably a better choice.

Should I abandon R for Python?

My answer is no! You shouldn’t think about changing, think about learning both. In data science, you can go a long way with Python or R, but you will go further with both. But for your information, there is no point in abandoning R for python, use it where it makes sense and is easy for you. However, it is 100% a good idea to add Python for many purposes.

Is R programming language used in AI?

Yes! R is widely used in new-style artificial intelligence, including statistical calculations, numerical analysis, the use of Bayesian inference, neural networks, and general machine learning. In areas such as finance, biology, sociology or medicine, it is one of the most important standard languages.

How can I install R?

You can download R at https://cran.r-project.org/mirrors.html. Select the CRAN mirror site closest to you, then in the box labeled “Download and Install R”, click the link corresponding to your operating system.

What is supervised learning in R?

Supervised Learning algorithm learns from a known data-set(Training Data) which has labels to make predictions. Regression and Classification are some examples of Supervised Learning.

Can Python do everything R can?

There’s nothing you can do in Python that you absolutely can’t do in R. However, the Python code may be significantly shorter and faster than the equivalent R code. String processing is a good example of something that’s much more pleasant to do in Python than R.

R is the most popular platform for applied machine learning. If you want to get serious about applied machine learning, find your way around R. … This will slow you down considerably, as you will have to learn how to model data and make predictions with every algorithm in every package repeatedly.

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